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What is a nameserver?
In their simplest form, nameservers match domain names to IP addresses and share your server's domain names and IP addresses with the Internet. Without nameservers, potential visitors can only access your server and its websites via IP address.
- When a visitor enters a URL into a browser, the computer queries the nameserver for the IP address that corresponds to the domain name that the visitor specified.
- After the visitor's computer has this information, the browser can access the website that you requested.
Nameservers also share information with other nameservers. This allows visitors to quickly and efficiently access websites that your server hosts.
- This concept is called propagation.
- When you first set up a website, its DNS information may take up to a few days to propagate throughout the Internet. This delay means that some visitors may be temporarily unable to access the website.
What is the difference between DNS software and DNS records?
DNS records are the resources within a zone file that map domain names and other services to their IP addresses. A DNS record can specify which mailservers exist for a given domain.
These records also identify which nameservers contain authoritative information about your domains and services.
Warning title Important Your server's local zone files must match the domain information that you specified to the registrar.
The nameserver software on your server manages nameserver records.
cPanel & WHM offers three nameserver software options: BIND, NSD, and MyDNS.
Why do I have to update nameserver records at the registrar?
When you update your nameserver records at the registrar, the registrar can push your domain's DNS information to their DNS namespace.
What is an authoritative nameserver?
Authoritative nameservers return responses to queries for one or more zones.
- An authoritative nameserver does not cache DNS information for related domains.
- Responses from authoritative nameservers are known as authoritative answers.
- You can configure an authoritative nameserver to return authoritative answers for some zones while it caches information for other zones.
What are the differences between local, private (custom), clustered, and remote nameservers?
- Local — Local nameservers are authoritative nameservers that are hosted by the same server that hosts the nameserver's cPanel accounts.
Clustered — Clustered nameservers are part of a collection of nameservers that all have authoritative nameserver status and share information amongst themselves. These nameservers prevent down time. If one server fails, then additional servers are available to pick up the slack.
Warning title Important:
Do not confuse a DNS cluster with a configuration cluster.
- Private or Custom — This type of nameserver is a custom-branded or vanity alternative name for the authoritative nameserver.
- Remote — Remote nameservers are authoritative nameservers that are hosted on a separate server from the website.
What is the difference between DNS clusters and the default local nameserver setup?
You can cluster software to ensure that all nameservers in the DNS cluster contain the same information. Clustered software will also share DNS information with servers that are external to the server that actually hosts the website.
- Some registrars require this configuration, but most do not.
- In larger server deployments, you can offload DNS to a DNS cluster configuration to lessen the load on the local sever as well.
- For more information about how to deploy a DNS cluster within WHM, read our DNS Cluster documentation.
Do I need to use DNSONLY to create a DNS cluster?
No. You can create a DNS cluster on several cPanel & WHM servers without DNSONLY. You can also configure BIND to create a DNS cluster with non-cPanel & WHM servers. We do not support this configuration.
Where are my DNS zone files stored?
cPanel & WHM stores zone files in the
/var/named directory, regardless of the selected nameserver software.
What if my DNS zones will not load?
If your server is part of a DNS cluster, and your DNS zones will not load, you may need to delete the temporary files in the
/var/cpanel/dnsrequests_db directory. To do this, run the following commands:
cd /var/cpanel/dnsrequests_db rm *
dnsadmin process runs, it checks all of the files in the
/var/cpanel/dnsrequests_db directory. If the
dnsadmin request has a large number of files to check, the request may time out before the system loads your DNS zones.
/var/cpanel/dnsrequests_db.last_clean_time file and check the most recent date that the system cleared the
/var/cpanel/dnsrequests_db directory. We recommend that you set up a cron job to clear the directory on a regular basis.
If your DNS zones will still not load, open a support ticket.
- The Simple DNS Zone Editor — The Simple DNS Zone Editor allows cPanel users to edit user-defined CNAME and A records in a zone file.
- The Advanced DNS Zone File Editor — The Advanced DNS Zone Editor allows cPanel users add and edit user-defined CNAME, A, and TXT records in a zone file. cPanel users can also use this interface to reset all of the information in a specified zone file.
- How to Add DNS Zone Files — This WHM feature gives system administrators and resellers the proper privileges to add new zone files.
- How to Edit DNS Zone Files — This WHM feature gives system administrators and resellers the proper privileges for them to edit zone files.
- How to Edit DNS Zone File Templates — This WHM feature gives system administrators and resellers the proper privileges for them to change how zone files are formatted.
- Reverse DNS for BIND — This document explains how to set up and configure reverse DNS (rDNS).
- How to Edit Records in DNS Zone Files with our XML or JSON API — With the proper permissions, you can use our XML or JSON API to edit DNS zone files.
- How to Select Nameserver Software — This document explains how to change your nameserver software and the differences between available nameserver software.